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In this list, you will find explanations of some terms frequently used in connection with Information Security. These will be explained in as simple terms as possible.

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Serves for authentication. This means agreeing on and using a character string for someone, usually a person, to identify themselves and confirm their own identity this way.


This is a small program which repairs bugs in software. Most patches are offered free-of-charge for download by software manufacturers on their website, or distributed automatically.


Just like classic phishing, pharming belongs to the Man-in-the-Middle group of attacks. With pharming, you will be redirected to a fake website by means of an IP address and domain allocation manipulation.


The term phishing is made up from the words «password» and «fishing». Attackers use phishing to obtain confidential data from unsuspecting Internet users. These might for instance involve access data for your e-banking facility or account information of online shops. Perpetrators abuse their victims’ good faith and helpfulness by purporting to be, say, an employee of a trustworthy financial institution.

There are a variety of other variations such as Vishing (Voice phishing or phone phishing) and QR phishing in addition to classic phishing via e-mail.


Is a standardised coding process to convert Unicode character strings to ASCII-compatible character strings consisting of the characters a to z, 0 to 9 and the hyphen (-). Punycode was developed to be able to display internationalised domain names made up from Unicode characters explicitly and reversibly by ASCII characters.

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