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Glossary

In this list, you will find explanations of some terms frequently used in connection with Information Security. These will be explained in as simple terms as possible.

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Bluetooth

This is a standard for wireless communication inside a small range. Bluetooth uses the freely available ISM (Industrial Scientific Medical) network, which works at 2.45 GHz. Transmission power is up to 1 MBit per second, with a range of up to 100 meters.


Bot Net

Bot nets are networks usually made up of several millions of computers which are interconnected after being infected with malware. Illegal bot net operators usually install bots without owners’ knowledge on their computers and use the computer resources for their purposes, such as distributed DDoS attacks or sending spam mails. Most bots can be monitored via a communication channel by a bot net operator and can receive commands. In case of any potential infection, the Anti Bot Net Advice Centre can help.


Browser

A special computer program to display websites on the World Wide Web (WWW) or of data and documents in general. The most important browsers used on the Internet are Microsoft Explorer or Microsoft Edge, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome and Apple Safari.


Cache

Denotes fast buffer memory to be able to provide data quickly (in case of repeated access). In the context of the Internet, browsers will store content of websites visited, so that they don’t have to be re-downloaded during the next visit, and the site can therefore be displayed more quickly.


Cookie

Cookies are text files generated when browsing a website, and are stored on visitors’ computers. This facilitates the recognition of visitors during future visits. Visitors can for instance be automatically logged in, or items in their shopping cart restored, this way. Cookies are however also used by advertising networks to record user behaviour and display adverts in a targeted manner.


Cracker

Crackers have excellent skills just like hackers, but they use them with criminal intent to intrude into systems, crack passwords, steal, change or delete data, or to abuse a computer’s infrastructure. Crackers always intend to make money or obtain payable services by devious means.


Darknet

Internet users can move almost totally anonymously on the Darknet. This area of the Internet is used by people who attach high importance to their privacy or live inside a repressive political system - but also by criminals.


Digital Signature

This is a digital seal which creates a unique connection between a natural person and an electronic document, which cannot be manipulated. In accordance with a certain calculation rule, a check sum (hash value) is computed from the document to be signed. The check sum is encrypted using the signatory’s secret key, and then sent to recipients together with the original document. Applying the same calculation rule, they will then create another hash value from the document. Recipients also encrypt the hash value using the public key of senders which has been created by senders to start with. If both hash values are identical, they can assume that the document has arrived on their system unaltered, and that the senders are actually who they purport to be.


Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS)

A DDoS attack is a distributed attack on a company’s website or server. Many computers (mostly those which are part of a bot net) bombard their target with innumerable requests during such an attack. The result: Due to overload, the attacked website or server relent to the pressure and are no longer available, or only to a limited degree. Blackmail attempts are generally the reason behind DDoS attacks. If no payment is made, criminals will threaten to repeat the attacks.


Domain

This is the name under which a resource (e. g. a website) can be reached. Every domain consists of several parts separated from each other by a full stop. The domain of this website is www.ebankingbutsecure.ch.



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